Update : 2020년 07월 02일


- Is the US-China Tr...
- Asian Project Mark...
- Takemasu, Making C...
- Issues with Policy...
- Social Security fo...
- Patrick Harlan (TV...
- Sony’s Revival
- Will India Manage ...
- THE OBSCURE ΙΜPRIN...
- How Japan Should R...

일본어로 수학 가르치는 일원 상록 학습관



hold on Korea Society


칼럼Zone

국제 금융 浦沙短筆
아내의 정원
히로미의 사설보기
고령화사회 대책 대강(代綱)
速 종합 격투기 통신
UFC 챔피언 생피에르, 최고...
게일 킴 핫라인
Overview of and ...
Here's What Happened
Independent Film...
재일교포 그리고 일본
재일교포 이야기
Bold English
Go by the book
SOCCER INVESTOR
공격수 아데바요르, 레알 완전...
Asia Pacific Yard
"Night Schools" ...
일본인에게 영어를
일본 산의 매력
어느 바텐더의 날들
十夜「ある冬の夜の出੖...
한지붕 두나라
일본을 떠날 때까지
평범녀의 빌린 인생
무라카미 류
민주주의 상징 김대중
70년 대선, 박정희와의 한판...
각양각색 동북아 소식
일본항공, 아메리칸 에어라인과...
Movie Craze
(Old) Sex and th...
The 힐링여행 SOUM숨
Black sauced noo...
자전거 일본 여행기
무소의 뿔처럼 혼자서 가라!

세계가 보는 일본




flag counters

조리사 로봇, 한번에 면 3개...
태국 방콕에 사상 첫 일본 고...
러시아 내 최초 일본 물품 전...
[칼럼] 호리천리(毫釐千里)
지자체, 외국인 안전위한 재난...
헬로키티 신칸센, 하카타-신오...
외국인 관광객, 품목 구분없이...
일본 가정 내 결정권, 아내의...
스즈키, 고급차 위주 중국 자...
에어비앤비 민박업, 일본에서 ...


International NJSave up to 70% on your next stay with Hotelclub.com
The Greatest Leap: Overcoming China’s Looming Environmental Crises [ 2006.02.03 ]

관련기사

- The Greatest Leap...
PART TWO

So how has Chinese authority faired in it’s recognition of and reaction towards the environment over the last 50 or so years? In the case of forests China suffers a love hate relationship. Whilst they compete for agricultural space they prevent desertification. Whilst logging them provides fuel, in situ they deter flooding. At the very least communist China acknowledged from its beginning that a then 5 percent national forest cover was not viable, implementing a ‘Make China Green’ policy throughout the 1950s. Two quandaries inhibited the efficiency of the Maoist era reforestation however, the first of which was government transparency. When Deng Xiaoping had the humility to release historical government documents the admission had to be made that reforestation figures were grossly exaggerated under Mao. The second issue arose out of the success of replanting, for it is all very well to pronounce a program of tree planting but with a seedling success rate of only 30 percent the inefficiency and ineffectiveness is astounding. Again it is necessary to recall the early administration of China’s communist party as having an obsession with ‘manpower’ being solely an industrial input. As such the maintenance and follow-up procedures necessary for tree planting where sorely neglected. The late 1970s and early ‘80s was an interesting period for the trees of China and the country in general. The reformist Deng had successfully managed to de-collectivise agriculture but not necessarily to the initial benefit of afforestation. The new system of ‘responsibility’ whereby each farmer is answerable for his or her own actions did little to promote programs of winter tree planting and soil improvement, probably because the ‘heavy hand of government’ could no longer bare immediate threat for non-compliers. Apathy could breed until each farmer saw the negative result of their disinterest. On the other hand Deng initiated the ‘Great Green Wall’ or formally the ‘Project of Protective Forest System’, a program of mammoth proportions aimed right at the heart of the desertification of the Northern provinces. By 1985 this had yielded 5.3 million hectares of new forest cover, expanding to 8.5 million ten years later. With 7000 kilometres of vegetation aimed at protecting 42 percent of the country, it is said to be the greatest ‘ecological endeavour’ in the world.

One conundrum resulting from the reformist Deng era is that whilst liberalisation of infrastructure and industry, leading to what is effectively capitalism, is in itself a worthy achievement, the implementation of radical new policies badly affected the environment. The desire to achieve Taiwan’s or Hong Kong’s economic status overshadowed environmental concerns, mirroring Mao’s tenure of 20 years prior. One such example of poor development strategy, from an environmental perspective, is visible in the coal mining energy sector. In the regional areas since the early 1980s small-scale mining enterprises, both community and individually operated, have steadily arisen. Whilst the benefits to rural unemployment are favourable, they may be outweighed by the respective increase in pollution caused directly by inefficient mining operations. Of course one cannot deny that attempts to develop the energy industry are paramount to social progress but China appears to lack a genuine stance on consistency with respect to regulating industrial enterprises.

As the years go by China is more or less forced to concern itself further with the environment as pollution issues and water concerns increase. The Chinese government, through its Standing Commission of the People’s Congress, issued in 1986 two major pieces of legislation which set the way for further environmental policy. The two original laws were the Law on Mineral Resources and the Law on Land Management, so for the first time China was acknowledging that legislative measures could be the way towards environmental regulation. What’s more, China took an active stance towards the World Environment and Development Congress in 1992, fully implementing its own Agenda 21 based on the United Nations’ imperative. MOLAR, or the Ministry of Land and Resources, has also recently been created in order to give provision to effective natural resource management. In all China has made genuine strides towards managing the environment more effectively, however the practicality of their policies, when tested, struggle to meter out the desired objectives. Without wishing to detail the difficulties of implementing national policy through a strongly centralised government regime, it does seem that China is an example whereby too many people at too many levels have an opportunity to distort or disregard policy handed down from on high, and in the case of the environment where regulation and control are on the agenda, perhaps few see the merit in following many environmental directives based on their economic viewpoints. Despite the fact it is financially advantageous to avoid disturbing the environment as opposed to rectifying problems once you’ve done so, the short terms goals and immediate profits of developers and industrialists appears to be winning the day.

The three most readily recognisable points for China to focus on are the aforementioned realms of forests, water, and pollution. The issue of forestry can no longer be contained by domestic policy, given the ‘globalisation’ of the carbon dioxide greenhouse predicament. The recent failings of the UN Kyoto Protocol do not necessarily spell the end for international co-operation on the matter, nor should it imply an ethical abolishment of the related concerns to humanity. The fact stands that global externalities should be administered by compliance to global standards, and if the world successfully implements a greenhouse reduction strategy then China will greatly benefit domestically. This would be a two-fold betterment since both carbon emissions, meaning industrial pollution, would be reduced and forests would be reinstated. The ‘internationalising’ of China’s environment may well be a most useful strategy in promoting sustainability. Looking at environmental concerns from a multi-national perspective has two bases. First of all, China’s pollution problems stem directly from industry, and industrial growth stems partly from the world export market. Developed nations appreciate Chinese production for its price and quantity if not necessarily its qualitative features, and such preference inevitably leads to an expanding industrial sector in China. The Chinese must play a cautious game of tariff setting. Clearly diminishing exports is not desirable to modern governments, but by demanding duties from foreign buyers they could channel the payment into funds directly for pollution control projects, almost like a ‘user pays’ system. The other critical aspect of ‘international linkages’ is the financial investment and assistance they can provide. In the case of China they should welcome technological and knowledge-based foreign input with open arms. China, still largely under development, has an excellent opportunity to benefit from others’ insight. Those nations already fully developed have taught themselves valuable lessons regarding environmental mistakes and it would be most desirable to inform China before it suffered similar self-inflicted environmental wounds with regards to mismanagement. In this vein China should also take advantage of its ability to install good market based measures for regulation as opposed to sustained heavy reliance on out dated legislation as practiced by the West. Mechanisms such as tradable emission permits, user pays sales taxes, and pollution charges could be the most effective means for promoting regulation as opposed to legal controls which entail much more administration and human resources, thus tending to be less efficient. China needs to fast track its improvement of the environment thus market based mechanisms, which would take effect quickly even in a ‘pseudo-capitalist’ system, should be sought to have an ongoing and increasing role in environmental governance.

Since its inception as the People’s Republic, China has struggled to come to grips with its environmental responsibilities. With industry being at the forefront of Maoist thought the environment was often forced to take a back seat and just accept its destination within the Mao government. Thankfully Deng and the subsequent era of reform gave the Chinese environment a much needed boost in administrative and political recognition for which it had been starved of for so long, but 20 odd years of pure industrialism had taken their toll. Only with increased involvement in the international community did China come to appreciate its responsibilities, but by the early 90s the predicament was a long way off being a short term challenge. With forests long gone, deserts growing by the day, and water and air pollution reaching impossibly high levels, the people of the People’s Republic have cause for concern regarding the ability of those who govern them. For a nation as large, as populous, and as ecologically and culturally diverse as China it should not be taken for granted that if people are managing to get by today, their children will be able to hold onto existence tomorrow. China desperately needs an urgent yet steady management system to guide them in the years ahead. Looking to both neighbours, and further a field to trading partners, it can extract and refine the best practices in existence and lead itself to environmental safety. Predicting the future is not an occupation without hazard, mistake, or uncertainty, but if China can grasp the complexity of the task and weight it accordingly in its own aspirations then it may look with some degree of optimism to a future of relative environmental stability.

Bernard Laidlaw


< Copyrights (C) 뉴스재팬 / www.newsjapan.co.kr 무단전재 및 재배포금지>
Facebook Share / 페이스북 공유
To E-mail / 기사 메일송신 | To Print Out / 기사 출력



Warning: mysql_query(): 4 is not a valid MySQL-Link resource in /home/hosting_users/iampjy/www/html/view.php on line 503

Warning: mysql_num_rows(): supplied argument is not a valid MySQL result resource in /home/hosting_users/iampjy/www/html/view.php on line 505
  • Unexpectedly Surprisingly The Most Popular News >>   의외로 가장 많이 읽혀진 뉴스
글쓴이
비밀번호 * 삭제시 필요합니다.(4~6자이내)
제목
내용
타인의 명예를 훼손하거나 개인정보를 유출하는 등 법률에 위반되는 글은 삼가하여 주시기 바랍니다. 게시물에 대한 민형사상의 법적인 책임은 게시자에게 있으며 운영자에 의해 삭제되거나 관련 법률에 따라 처벌 받을 수 있습니다.
글쓰기전 최종체크
주간 베스트 뉴스











exclusive image

뉴스재팬 소개 / About Us  |   광고 제휴 / Advertisements  |   만드는 사람들 / Staffs  |   By Other Presses                                                                              시작페이지로  |   즐겨찾기로

 
NPO 法人 |   Incorporated Non Profit Org. Answer Asia / 비영리기구 앤서아시아 (아시아의 평화와 우호를 생각하는 모임)
Main Spot |   アンサ一アジア ヘッドオフィス is located at Takajukacho Hirakata Osaka Japan
K Spot |   Alternative School is at #126 F1 Sangroksu Apt Mall Ilwonbondong Gangnamgu Seoul Korea
T Spot |   PR Place is at Soi Vuthiphan Rachaprarop Rd. Rajathevee Bangkok Thailand
Contact |   E-mail : newsjapanet@gmail.com | Need a phone number? Email first | Very active from the year of 2005
          Copyright ⓒ 2004 ~ 2020 NewsJapan.net. All rights reserved. Contact newsjapanet@gmail.com for more information. admin